CERT Flashcards
Unit 5 – Light Search & Rescue

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #13
How can the time of the event and day of the week affect your search and rescue?

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Time and Day of the Week Considerations:

At night, more people will be in their homes, so the greatest need for search and rescue will be in residential settings.

Conversely, during the day, people will be at work, so the need will be in commercial buildings.

Search and rescue operations may also be affected by where people are located in their homes and the amount of daylight available.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #13
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #16
How can the occupancy affect your search and rescue?

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Occupancy Considerations:

The purpose for which the structure was designed may indicate the likely number of victims and their location.

Is it a house, an apartment building, an office building, a store?

What time of day is it?

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #16
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #8
What should you consider when making decisions during size-up?

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Size-up Considerations:

Safety of CERT members

Safety of victims

Protection of environment

Protection of property

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #8
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #20
What are four types of voids?

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Types of Voids:

Pancake voids – floors collapse diagonally onto each other, creating voids in the areas where the floors remain attached to the walls.

Lean-to voids – a collapsed wall or floor leans against an outside wall, creating a void where the floor remains attached to the wall.

“V” voids – floor or wall collapses at or near the center, creating voids on either end next to the walls.

Individual voids – spaces into which the victim may have crawled for protection (bathtubs and the space underneath desks). Children may seek shelter in smaller spaces like cabinets.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #20
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #9
What is an individual void?

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Individual voids are spaces into which the victim may have crawled for protection.

Examples of individual voids include bathtubs and the space underneath desks. Children may seek shelter in smaller places like cabinets.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #9
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #6
What is moderate damage?

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Signs of Moderate Damage:

Visible signs of damage

Decorative work damaged or fallen

Many visible cracks or breaks in the wall surface

Major damage to interior contents

Building still on foundation

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #6
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #5
What is light damage?

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Signs of Light Damage:

Superficial damage

Broken windows

Superficial cracks or breaks in the wall surface, for example, fallen or cracked plaster

Minor damage to the interior contents

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #5
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #24
What are the nine steps that enable responders to make decisions and respond appropriately in the areas of greatest need?

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The Nine Steps to Make Decisions and Respond Appropriately:

Gather the facts

Assess and communicate the damage

Consider the probabilities

Assess your situation

Establish priorities

Make Decisions

Develop an action plan

Take Action

Evaluate progress

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #24
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #1
Light damage – “Is it safe for the CERT members to attempt the rescue?”

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With light damage, the CERT mission is to:

locate;

triage;

treat airway, major bleeding, and shock;

continue size-up;

and document.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #1
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #11
What is leveraging?

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Leveraging is accomplished by wedging a lever under an object that needs to be moved, with a stationary object underneath it to act as a fulcrum.
When the lever is forced down over the fulcrum, the far end of the lever will lift the object.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #11
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #10
What information can you get from bystanders or those who are famiiar with a structure?

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Information to Get From Bystanders:

How many people live (or work) in the building?

Where would they be at this time?

What is the building layout?

What have you seen or heard?

Has anyone come out?

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #10
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #2
Moderate damage – “Is it safe for the CERT members to attempt the rescue?”

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With moderate damage, the CERT mission is to:

locate;

treat airway, major bleeding, and shock;

evacuate;

warn others;

continue size-up while minimizing the number of rescuers and time spent inside the structure

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #2
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #15
How can the weather affect your search and rescue?

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Weather Conditions:

Severe weather will have an effect on victims and rescuers alike and will certainly hamper rescue efforts.

Forecasts of severe weather should be considered as a limiting factor on the time period during which search and rescue can occur.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #15
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #19
What are the two most frequent causes of rescuer deaths?

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Most Frequent Causes of Rescuer Deaths:

Disorientation

Secondary collapse

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #19
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #3
Heavy damage – “Is it safe for the CERT members to attempt the rescue?”

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With heavy damage:

No rescue should be attempted.

Use tape around the area or mark the area as heavy damage.

CERT members do not have any legal authority to stop or restrict someone who wants to enter an area.

At best, CERT members can warn others about the danger and inform the CERT IC/TL immediately if it is known that people are in the building.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #3
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #14
How can the construction type and terrain affect your search and rescue?

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Construction and Terrain Considerations:

Some types of construction are more susceptible to damage than others.

The type of terrain will affect how the search is conducted.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #14
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #25
What are some important facts that need to be gathered during size-up?

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Important Facts To Gather During Size-up:

Time of event and day of week

Type of structure

Construction type

Weather

Hazards

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #25
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #23
When considering probabilities during size-up, what should you think about?

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Think About These Size-Up Probabilities:

What will probably happen (based on the current facts gathered)

What could happen (“What if” the situation changes, apply “Murphy’s Law”)

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #23
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #18
Does an Action Plan need to be written?

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Does an Action Plan need to be written?

An action plan does not need to be written, but when search and rescue operations are required, the situation is probably complex enough that a written plan of some type will be important. A plan should:

Help focus the operation on established priorities and decisions

Provide for documentation to be given to responding agencies when they arrive on scene – Provide for documentation that will become part of the record of the CERT’s overall operation

Keep notes as you develop your action plan. Any changes made to the initial plan based on new information that comes in should also be documented.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #18
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #17
After evaluating the situation and, keeping in mind that the safety of the CERT member is always the top priority, the next step is to determine:

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After Evaluating the Situation, Determine:

What should be done?

In what order?

Remember your goal: to rescue the greatest number in the shortest amount of time.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #17
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #7
How can you communicate the location of damage/victims?

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Communicating Hazards and Victims:

You can describe different locations within and around the structure by using the ABCD standard, with A corresponding to the front of the building and B, C, and D representing the sides of the building, moving clockwise from A.

Using this system, the area inside of a structure can be further broken down by quadrants to facilitate communication.

For instance, a hazard or victim located closest to the A and B sides of the structure is in the A/B quadrant.

You must communicate your findings to the CERT command post or responding agencies.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #7
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #22
The decision to attempt a rescue should be based on what three factors?

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What factors determine if you can attempt a rescue?:

The risks involved to the rescuer

The overall goal of doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people

Resources and manpower available

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #22
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #21
Search and rescue consists of three separate operations:

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Search and Rescue Operations:

Size-up involves assessing the situation and determining a safe action plan (using the 9-step size-up model).

Search involves locating victims and documenting their location.

Rescue involves the procedures and methods required to extricate the victims.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #21
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #12
What is box cribbing?

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A crib is a wooden framework used for support or strengthening.
Box cribbing means arranging pairs of wood pieces alternately to form a stable rectangle.

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #12
Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #4
What is heavy damage?

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Signs of Heavy Damage:

Partial or total collapse

Tilting

Obvious structural instability

Building off foundation

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue #4