CERT Flashcards
Unit 2 – Fire Safety

Unit 2: Fire Safety #35
Natural gas presents two types of hazards. What are they?

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Natural Gas Hazard:

It is an asphyxiant that robs the body of oxygen
It is an explosive that can easily ignite

Unit 2: Fire Safety #35
Unit 2: Fire Safety #34
Electrical emergencies sometimes occur despite our best efforts. Every member of the household should be aware of the following procedures in the event of an electrical emergency:

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In an electrical emergency:
Locate the circuit breakers or fuses, and know how to shut off the power.
Post shutoff instructions next to the breaker box or fuse box.
Unscrew individual fuses or switch off smaller breakers first, then pull the main switch or breaker.
When turning the power back on, turn on the main switch or breaker first, then screw in the fuses or switch on the smaller breakers, one at a time.
You should not enter a flooded basement or standing water to shut off the electrical supply because water conducts electricity.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #34
Unit 2: Fire Safety #33
What electrical hazards can you reduce or eliminate?

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Avoid the “electrical octopus.” Eliminate tangles of electrical cords.
Don’t overload electrical outlets. Don’t plug power strips into other power strips.
Don’t run electrical cords under carpets.
Check for and replace broken or frayed cords immediately.
Maintain electrical appliances properly. Repair or replace malfunctioning appliances.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #33
Unit 2: Fire Safety #32
Each of us has some type of fire hazard in our home or workplace. Most of these hazards fall into what three categories:

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Electrical hazards
Natural gas hazards
Flammable or combustible liquids

Unit 2: Fire Safety #32
Unit 2: Fire Safety #31
What are the classes of fire and/or extinguishers?

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Classes A, B, C, D, and K
To aid in extinguishing fires, fires are categorized into classes based on the type of fuel that is burning

Unit 2: Fire Safety #31
Unit 2: Fire Safety #30
Class K fires

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Class K Fires: Cooking oils (e.g., vegetable oils, animal oils, fats)

Unit 2: Fire Safety #30
Unit 2: Fire Safety #29

Class D fires

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Class D Fires: Combustible metals (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, titanium)

Unit 2: Fire Safety #29
Unit 2: Fire Safety #28
Class C fires

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Class C Fires: Energized electrical equipment (e.g., wiring, motors).
When the electricity is turned off, the fire becomes a Class A fire.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #28
Unit 2: Fire Safety #27
Class B fires

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Class B Fires: Flammable liquids (e.g., oils, gasoline) and combustible liquids (e.g., charcoal lighter fluid, kerosene).
These fuels burn only at the surface because oxygen cannot penetrate the depth of the fluid. Only the vapor burns when ignited.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #27
Unit 2: Fire Safety #26
Class A fires

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Class A Fires: Ordinary combustibles such as paper, cloth, wood, rubber, and many plastics

Unit 2: Fire Safety #26
Unit 2: Fire Safety #25
Fire requires three elements to exist. What are they?

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Heat: Heat is required to elevate the temperature of a material to its ignition point
Fuel: The fuel for a fire may be a solid, liquid, or gas. The type and quantity of the fuel will determine which method should be used to extinguish the fire
Oxygen: Most fires will burn vigorously in any atmosphere of at least 20% oxygen. Without oxygen, most fuels could be heated until entirely vaporized, yet would not burn.
These three elements, called the fire triangle, create a chemical exothermic reaction, which is fire.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #25
Unit 2: Fire Safety #24

What should a CERT team member do when encountering a NFPA 704 Diamond?

signNFPA_704

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The NFPA 704 Diamond should be a “stop sign” for CERT members. You should always err on the side of safety. You should not assume that, because there is no placard, no hazardous materials are present.

Treat any unknown situation as a hazardous materials incident.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #24
Unit 2: Fire Safety #23
What should a CERT member do when encountering a vehicle with a DOT, UN or NA placard?

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Like the NFPA 704 Diamond, the DOT, UN, and NA placards should be a “stop sign” for CERT members.
You should always err on the side of safety. You should not assume that, because there is no placard, no hazardous materials are present.
Treat any unknown situation as a hazardous materials incident.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #23
Unit 2: Fire Safety #22
What three ways are hazardous materials marked and identified while in transit?

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The Department of Transportation (DOT) placards
The United Nations (UN) system
The North American (NA) warning placards

Unit 2: Fire Safety #22
Unit 2: Fire Safety #21
What is a NFPA 704 Diamond?

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The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704 Diamond is a concise system for identifying the hazards associated with specific materials.
The NFPA 704 Diamond placard is found on fixed facilities where hazardous materials are used or stored.
The diamond is divided into four colored quadrants, each with a rating number inside of it, which indicates the degree of risk associated with the material.
Numbers range from 1 to 4. The higher the number the higher the risk!

Unit 2: Fire Safety #21
Unit 2: Fire Safety #20
What does the yellow quadrant of the NFPA 704 Diamond represent?

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The yellow quadrant indicates reactivity.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #20
Unit 2: Fire Safety #19
What does the white quadrant of the NFPA 704 Diamond represent?

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White indicates special precautions:
W – Indicates a material that shows unusual reactivity with water (i.e., should never be mixed with water or have water sprayed on it). Magnesium metal is an example.
OX – The material possesses oxidizing properties. Ammonium nitrate is an example.
ACID – The material is an acid.
ALK – The material is a base.
COR – The material is corrosive.
Radioactive symbol – The material is radioactive.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #19
Unit 2: Fire Safety #18
What does the red quadrant of the NFPA 704 Diamond represent?

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The red quadrant describes the material’s flammability.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #18
Unit 2: Fire Safety #17
What does the blue quadrant of the NFPA 704 Diamond represent?

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The blue quadrant indicates health hazard.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #17
Unit 2: Fire Safety #16
What do the numbers represent within the various quadrants of the NFPA 704 Diamond?

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The numbers within the NFPA 704 Diamond are used to assist professional firefighters in responding to accidents or fires.
CERT members should consider these placards a “stop sign.”
The only action CERT members should take is to evacuate persons who are downwind, as necessary, to an uphill or upwind location.
Do not enter the building in an attempt to evacuate persons inside.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #16
Unit 2: Fire Safety #15
Hazardous materials include, but are not limited to:

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Explosives
Flammable gases and liquids
Poisons and poisonous gases
Corrosives
Nonflammable gases
Oxidizers
Radioactive materials

Unit 2: Fire Safety #15
Unit 2: Fire Safety #14
Materials are considered hazardous if they have which characteristics?

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Materials are considered hazardous if they have any of these characteristics:
Corrode other materials
Explode or are easily ignited
React strongly with water
Are unstable when exposed to heat or shock
Are otherwise toxic to humans, animals, or the environment through absorption, inhalation, injection, or ingestion

Unit 2: Fire Safety #14
Unit 2: Fire Safety #13
What is always the number one priority for CERT members?

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Rescuer safety is always the number one priority. Therefore, CERT members always:
Work with a buddy
Wear safety equipment (Hard hat, Protective eyewear (safety goggles), N-95 mask, Leather work and non-latex exam gloves, Long-sleeved shirt, Reflective vest, Long pants, Sturdy shoes or boots)
The CERT goal is to do the greatest good for the greatest number.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #13
Unit 2: Fire Safety #12
How is the buddy system used in fire suppression?

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A buddy system is used in all cases.
The job of Team Member 1 is to put out a fire with an extinguisher.
The job of Team Member 2 is to watch for hazards and ensure the safety of both team members.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #12
Unit 2: Fire Safety #11
Sometimes, what CERTs don’t do when suppressing fires is as important as what they should do.

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DON’T get too close. Stay near the outer range of your extinguisher. If you feel the heat, you are too close.
DON’T try to fight a fire alone. Remember that your first priority is your personal safety. Don’t put it at risk.
DON’T try to suppress large fires. Learn the capability of your equipment, and do not try to suppress a fire that is clearly too large for the equipment at hand (i.e., a fire that is larger than the combined ratings of available fire extinguishers).
DON’T enter smoke-filled areas. Suppressing fires in smoke-filled areas requires equipment that CERTs don’t have.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #11
Unit 2: Fire Safety #10
What is the acronym for operating a fire extinguisher?

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The acronym for operating a fire extinguisher is PASS:
Pull (Test the extinguisher after pulling the pin)
Aim
Squeeze
Sweep
To ensure that the extinguisher is working properly, test it before approaching any fire.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #10
Unit 2: Fire Safety #9
What are the four components of a portable fire extinguisher?

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Hose
Carrying handle and trigger
Pressure gauge
Cylinder

Unit 2: Fire Safety #9
Unit 2: Fire Safety #8
What questions should you ask before attempting to fight a fire with a fire extinguisher?

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Are there two ways to exit the area quickly and safely if I attempt to extinguish the fire? (The first priority for you and your buddy is safety.)
Do I have the right type of extinguisher for the type of fire?
Is the extinguisher large enough for the fire?
Is the area free from other dangers, such as hazardous materials and falling debris?
If you answer “NO” to any of these questions or if you have been unable to put out the fire in 5 seconds using the extinguisher, you should:- Leave the building immediately.
Shut all doors as you leave to slow the spread of the fire.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #8
Unit 2: Fire Safety #7
What is overhauling a fire?

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If the fire is extinguished in 5 seconds and the area is safe, you should stay and overhaul the fire.
Overhauling is the process of searching a fire scene for hidden fire or sparks in an effort to prevent the fire from rekindling.
Remember “cool, soak, and separate.”

Unit 2: Fire Safety #7
Unit 2: Fire Safety #6
What are the characteristics of water extinguishers?

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Common characteristics of water extinguishers include:
Capacity. Standard size is 2.5 gallons.
Range. Standard range is 30-40 feet.
Pressure. Standard pressure is 110 pounds per square inch (psi).
Use extreme caution when using a water extinguisher to ensure that the water, which is under pressure, does not scatter lightweight materials and spread the fire.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #6
Unit 2: Fire Safety #5
Dry chemical extinguishers are most common. What are their characteristics?

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Dry chemical extinguishers have a sodium bicarbonate base and are effective on Class B and C fires.
Multipurpose dry chemical extinguishers have a monoammonium phosphate base and are effective for Class A, B, and C fires. Common characteristics of dry chemical extinguishers include:
Capacity. Approximately 10-20 seconds discharge time
Range. Standard range is 8-12 feet.
Pressure. Standard pressure is 175-250 psi.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #5
Unit 2: Fire Safety #4
What are the CERT fire fighting resources?

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Portable fire extinguishers, interior wet standpipes, confinement and “creative resources”

Unit 2: Fire Safety #4
Unit 2: Fire Safety #3
What types of fire extinguishers are there?

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There are four types of extinguishers:
Water
Dry chemical
Carbon dioxide
Specialized fire extinguishers

Unit 2: Fire Safety #3
Unit 2: Fire Safety #2
What is size-up?

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Size-up is a continual process that enables professional responders to make decisions and respond appropriately in the areas of greatest need. CERT sizeup consists of 9 steps and should be used in any emergency situation.
1. Gather facts
2. Assess and communicate the damage.
3. Consider probabilities.
4. Assess your own situation.
5. Establish priorities.
6. Make decisions.
7. Develop a plan of action.
8. Take action.
9. Evaluate progress.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #2
Unit 2: Fire Safety #1
How can you reduce hazards from flammable liquids?

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Read labels to identify flammable products.
Store them properly, using the LIES method (Limit, Isolate, Eliminate, Separate).
You should only extinguish a flammable liquid using a portable fire extinguisher rated for Class B fires.

Unit 2: Fire Safety #1